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Bulgaria SHIPKA Shipka Pass (el. 1150 m./3820 ft.) is a scenic mountain pass through the Balkan Mountains in Bulgaria. During the Russo-Turkish War in 1877 and 1878, Shipka Pass was the scene of a series of conflicts collectively named the Battle of Shipka Pass. The Battle of Shipka Pass consisted of four battles that were fought between the Russian Empire, aided by Bulgarian volunteers, and the Ottoman Empire for control over the vital Shipka Pass during the Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878). The crucial moment came in August 1877, when a group of 5,000 Bulgarian volunteers and 2,500 Russian troops repulsed an attack against the peak by a nearly 40,000 strong Ottoman army. The top of the tower reveals a panorama of Shipka Peak and the surrounding area Shipka Monument (a 31.5-metre high stone tower in the form of a truncated pyramid) designed by architect Atanas Donkov and sculptor Aleksandar Andreev, was opened with a ceremony in 1934 A giant bronze lion, 8 m long and 4 m high, standing above the entrance to the tower represents the victory over the Ottoman forces Stairs to the monument A marble sarcophagus housing some of the remains of the Russian and Bulgarian casualties is on the first floor. There are four other floors where one can find replicas of Bulgarian military flags and other relics The Memorial Temple of the Birth of Christ, better known as the Shipka Memorial Church or Shipka Monastery is a Bulgarian Orthodox church built near the town of Shipka in Stara Planina between 1885 and 1902 to Antoniy Tomishko's design in the seventeenth-century Muscovite style, under the direction of architect Alexander Pomerantsev. It is, together with the other parts of the Shipka Monument complex, dedicated to the Russian, Ukrainian and Bulgarian soldiers that died for the liberation of Bulgaria in the Russo-Turkish War, 1877-78. Initially, the entire monastery was Russian property, but in 1934 it was granted by the Soviet government of Bulgaria for eternal times. In 1970, the monument was declared a cultural monument and later became part of the ShipkaBuzludzha Historical and Architectural Reserve. The temple has a central dome surrounded by 4 smaller domes The church’s exterior is stunning, especially experienced in its remote and isolated mountain setting, while the interior is decorated with gilded ornamentation and intricate paintings. The Orthodox church built in the years 18851902 is the first monument to the RussoBulgarian friendship in history On the west side of the main building stands an impressive bell tower rising 53 m high Below it are four arches, ending with peaked pyramid and crucifix Richly decorated with embossed designs and inscriptions seventeen bells weigh over 20 tonnes, the weight of the largest are 11,643 kg. The church's bells were cast from the cartridges that were collected after the battles Until 2005, Shipka was subordinate not to the Bulgarian Orthodox Church, which it currently belongs to, but to the Russian Church The bell tower The bell tower North and south facades are decorated with galleries as picturesque ornaments finish the edges of polyhedral pyramidal tents with gold bulbs and put a cross Shipka Memorial Church Gallery Gallery with the names of the soldiers killed in the Battle of Shipka The names of the fallen were engraved on 34 marble slabs The temple built in the style of Russian churches from the 17th century is richly decorated with paintings, frescoes and gilding The temple is architectural masterpiece, with typical Russian construction details were shaped, four side dome 33 meters in height, has a central 42 m, with crosses placed over them The temple has a fabulous ceramic decorations, friezes depict birds and plants, white stone details contrast with the red background of the brick walls of the building and transmit fresh colorful look There are 12 sarcophagi in the crypt. The bones of nearly 9,000 Russian and Bulgarian soldiers who died during the war for the liberation of Bulgaria from the Ottoman occupation were buried there Interior stairwell headed down to the crypt Text and pictures: Internet All copyrights belong to their respective owners Presentation: Sanda Foişoreanu www.slideshare.net/michaelasanda Sound: Voices of Ancient Bulgaria - Sacred Orthodox music 2021 http://ma-planete.com/michaelasanda 1 1 ria Bulga Viena l Istanbu 2 2 Viena l Istanbu ria Bulga 5 6 Slo ia ve n Munich

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